Mongolia in Brief
Mongolia is truly one of the world’s last undiscovered travel destinations and the safest country to visit. It is a land where you can experience wide-open spaces, cobalt blue skies, forests, deserts, crystal clear rivers and lakes, and the traditional hospitality of the nomads. Permanent dwellings are few and far between, fences even fewer and the land is owned by the people, like one large National Park. As a tremendous destination to experience the outdoors, Mongolia also boasts of unique history dating back to the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. Simply put, it is a land of adventure, horses, nomads, and blue sky.
Population: 3 million
Area: 1,566000 sq km (610,740 sq mi)
Land boundaries: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with China 4,673 km
Altitude: Average altitude is 1,580 m above sea level with highest point Huiten Peak at Altai Tavan Bogd at 4,374 m above sea level and lowest point being Huh Nuur depression at 560 m altitude.
Terrain: Mountain steppes in central and northern regions, high mountains in west and vast semi-desert and desert plains in the south
People: Khalkha Mongols (86%), over 20 smaller Mongolian ethnic groups and Kazaks (6%)
Languages: Official language is Mongolian. Russian is other major language is used. English is widely spoken in Ulaanbaatar.
Religions: Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Christian and Shamanism
Climate: Relatively dry with extreme continental temperatures. Average summer temperature + 20 C, Average winter temperature -23 C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. Winter lasts from November to mid March, Spring April through May, Summer from June through to September.
Economy: Traditionally based on agriculture, livestock breeding (camels, cattle, horses, goats and sheep), mining (coal, gold, copper and uranium).
Political system: Parliamentary republic. State Great Khural (Parliament), with 76 members elected for four years. The last election was held in July, 2012. President elected for four years. Present President was elected in 2013. Prime Minister appointed by State Great Khural for four years.
Judicial system: Mongolian judicial system consists of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Aimag and capital city courts, Soum and district courts.
State structure: Mongolia is unitary state and divided administratively into Aimags (21) and a capital city; Aimags are subdivided into soums; soums into bags; and a capital city into districts; districts into khoroos.
National currency: Tugrug (MNT), USD 1 equals approx. 1880 tugrugs as of Jan 2015.
Public holidays: December 31-January 1-New Year, 3 days in January/ February-Mongolia New Year (Tsagaan Sar), June 1- Mother and Children day, July 11-13-National Holiday (Naadam)
Time: Add 8 hour to Greenwich Mean Time
Normal working hours: 08.00-12.00 and 13.00-17.00
Electric current: 220 volts/ 50 HZ
Visa arrangements: Visa shall be issued by Mongolian Embassies and Diplomatic Missions as well as Honorary consuls of Mongolia, or can be obtained at the airport at a cost of US 53$ but must be accompanied by an invitation.Visa
Mongolia lies between Russia to the North and China to the South. The total land of area is 1,566,000 square kilometers- Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also the world’s second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The geography of the country is characterized by great diversity. From north to south, it can be divided into four areas: mountain-forest steppe, mountain steppe and, in the extreme south, semi-desert and desert (the latter being about 30% of the entire territory). In contrast to most visitors’ expectations, much of the country’s territory is mountainous. The principal mountains are concentrated in the west, with much of this region having elevations above 2,000 meters. The country’s highest peaks are permanently snow-capped land covered with glaciers.
Mountains and dense forest dominate central and northern Mongolia. The grasslands cover large areas of this region. Across the eastern part of the country stretches the vast grasslands of the Central Asian steppe. The steppe grades into the Gobi desert, which extends throughout southern Mongolia from the east to the west of the country. The Gobi Desert is mostly gravely, but also contains large areas of sand dunes in the drier areas of the Gobi near the southern border. The highest point in Mongolia is Nayramadlin Orgil (also known as Mt.Khuiten), at 4,374 meters (14,350 feet). The lowest point is Huh Nuur, at 560 meters (1,700 feet).